Everywhere in the world women live
longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women are more likely to live longer than men? What is the reason has this advantage gotten larger over time? The evidence isn't conclusive and we have only limited answers. While we are aware that there are biological, behavioral, and environmental factors which all play a part in the longevity of women over males, it isn't clear how much each factor contributes.
We know that women live longer than men, regardless of weight. But it is not due to the fact that certain non-biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.
Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are over the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl from every country could be expected to live for longer than her brother.
Interestingly, this chart shows that, تفسير الاحلام
while the advantage for women is present everywhere, cross-country differences are large. In Russia women are 10 years older than men; in Bhutan the difference is just half each year.
In wealthy countries, the advantage of women in longevity was smaller
We will now examine how the gender advantage in longevity has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancies at birth in the US during the period 1790 until 2014. Two points stand out.
The first is that there is an upward trend: Men as well as women in the US have a much longer life span longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.
Second, the gap is growing: Although the advantage
of women in life expectancy used to be quite small but it has risen significantly over time.
If you select the option "Change country by country' in the chart, determine if these two points also apply to other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.